Compiled By Rich Murray, MA
Room For All
1943 Otowi Road
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA
Telephone: 505-501-2298
Web Site:

Posted: 23 March 2011

Aspartame water in rats for 6 months causes liver harm, RH Nair et al, Mahatma Gandhi U, Food Chem Toxicol 2011.03.02: Rich Murray 2011.03.12
Saturday, March 12, 2011

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.
Abhilash M, Paul MV, Varghese MV, Nair RH.
School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India, 686560.


The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model.

Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150 - 175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg.b.wt; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt; and controls were given water freely.

Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg.b.wt) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and y-glutamyl transferase (GGT).

The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg.b.wt).

Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg.b.wt).

It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system.
Copyright 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. PMID: 21376768

Souganth Paul, MV - Research Fellow

Abhilash, M - Research Fellow

Mathews V Varghese - Research Fellow

School of Bio-Sciences Teacher Profiles

Name: Dr. R. Harikumaran Nair
Designation: Assistant Professor
Address: Room No. 5
School of Biosciences,
Mahatma Gandhi University
Priyadarshini Hills. P O., Kottayam-686 560
Kerala, India
Phone: +91-481-2731035 Extension: 16
Mobile Phone: +91-94472 60362
Home page:

Research Interest

In our laboratory, we study the effect of food additives such as monosodium glutamate, aspartame, drug component arsenic trioxide and other toxins like organic solvents on different physiological mechanisms in rats and tissue culture model systems. Another area of interest is environmental and occupational stress.

Academic Profile

Ph.D - Physiology (2001), School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India
M.Sc - Zoology (1994) University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
B.Sc - Zoology (1992) University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Professional Experience:

Group Members

Sagi, TM - Research Fellow
Souganth Paul, MV - Research Fellow
Abhilash, M - Research Fellow
Mathews V Varghese - Research Fellow
Manju Alex - Research Fellow


Scientific Proceedings

  1. Abhilash M, Shashidhar S, Harikumaran Nair R
    The role of electrolytes in cataractogenesis and modulation by silver nitrate in albino rats.
    22nd Kerala Science Congress. 28-31 January 2010. KFRI, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala, India

  2. Sauganth Paul, Harikumaran Nair R, Shashidhar S
    Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities in hypertensive subjects of different age groups.
    Indian Science Congress, Medical Sciences section. 03.01.2010 to 07.01.2010, University of Kerala, Kerala, India


  1. Ajitha Kumari R, Shashidhar S and Harikumaran Nair R
    Oxidative stress and lung functions in diabetic mellitus.
    Biomedicine. 2010 (accepted)

  2. Pankajam K, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C, Rethamma KV, and Shashidhar S
    Effects of Automobile exhaust pollution on the pulmonary functions in shopkeepers.
    Pollution Research. 2005; 24(1): 51-56.

  3. Kesavachandran C, Harikumaran Nair R. and Shashidhar S.
    Pulmonary function studies in Kalarypayathu Practitioners.
    Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2004; 48(2), 235-240.

  4. Geetha B., Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C, Susan Chandy and Shashidhar S
    Pulmonary functions in workers of fertilizer and chemical Industry.
    Ind.J.Physiol.Pharmacol. 2001; 45(2):215-221.

  5. Geetha B., Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran, C and Shashidhar S
    Respiratory Function Studies in Rare Earth Factory Workers.
    Pollution Research 2001; 20(1):115-119.

  6. Kesavachandran C, Harikumaran Nair R, and Shashidhar S
    Lung Volume in Swimmers performing different strokes.
    Ind.J.Med.Sci. 2001; 55(12):669-676.

  7. Reethamma KV, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S
    Effect of Wood Dust on Lung Functions.
    Pollution Research 2000; 19(4):693-699.

  8. Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S
    Spirometric Impairments in Undernourished Children.
    Ind.J.Physiol.Pharmacol.1999; 43(4):467-473.

    Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C, Sanil R, Sreekumar R and Shashidhar S
    Prediction Equation for Lung Functions in South Indian Children.
    Ind.J.Physiol.Pharmacol.1997; 41(4):390-396.

  9. Kesavachandran C., Sanil R, Harikumaran Nair R, Arun A Rauf and Shashidhar S
    Pulmonary Function Studies in Rowers.
    Ind.J.Physiol.Pharmacol.1997; 41(1):29-34.

  10. Bindu K Pazhur, Susan Chandy, Harikumaran Nair R, and Shadhidhar S
    Effect of Domestic Cooking Fuels on Lung Function in Women.
    Pollution Research 1997;16(3):149-154.

Scientific Papers in International Conference:

  1. Geetha B, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S
    Respiratory Function Studies on Newsprint Factory workers.
    International Conference on Health, Occupation and Environment in Unorganized Sector - Problems and Road Maps (ICHOE 2004). November 1-3, 2004, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC, CSIR), Lucknow, INDIA.

  2. Rethamma KV, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S
    Pulmonary function status among Wood workers.
    International Conference on Health, Occupation and Environment in Unorganized Sector - Problems and Road Maps (ICHOE 2004). November 1-3, 2004, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
    (ITRC, CSIR), Lucknow, INDIA.

Academic & Administrative Duties

Training undertaken: (2007 Onwards)

Research Collaborations
IITR - Lucknow,UP, India
NIIST - Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Copyright 2010 MG University, All Rights Reserved. Content by PRD.
Supported by System Administration Team, M.G. University


Careful expert lifetime study on mice shows liver and lung cancers from aspartame, M Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Institute, Italy, checked by US National Toxicology Program experts, confirms many previous studies from 2001 on: Rich Murray 2011.02.27
Sunday, February 27, 2011

Re GC Ebers study, females harmed more by body making methanol into formaldehyde in brain via ADH enzyme: 589 references, WC Monte, retired Prof. Nutrition: Rich Murray 2011.01.08
Saturday, January 8, 2011

Woodrow C Monte, PhD, Emiritus Prof. Nutrition gives many PDFs of research -- methanol (11% of aspartame) puts formaldehyde into brain and body -- multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, cancers, birth defects, headaches: Rich Murray 2010.05.13
Thursday, May 13, 2010

[Other formaldehyde sources include alcohol drinks and tobacco and wood smoke, while adequate folic acid levels protect most people.]
[summary, not peer reviewed]
Monte WC.
Methanol: A chemical Trojan horse as the root of the inscrutable U. Medical Hypotheses 2010;74(3):493-6
DOI 2010.10.16

Monte WC.
Bittersweet: Aspartame Breast Cancer Link.
Fitness Life 2008 Jan. 34: 32-36

Monte WC.
A Deadly Experiment. Methanol and MS
Fitness Life 2007 Dec. 34: 36-41

Monte WC.
Sickly Sweet: Is your Diet Sweetener killing you?
Fitness Life 2007 Nov. 33: 31-33
589 references for above articles and upcoming book
[and Fitness Life 2007 Dec. 34: 36-41]

Methanol: Where Is It Found? How Can It Be Avoided?

AVOID the following, ranked in order of greatest danger:

  1. Cigarettes.
  2. Diet foods and drinks with aspartame.
  3. Fruit and vegetable products and their juices in bottles, cans, or pouches.
  4. Jellies, jams, and marmalades not made fresh and kept refrigerated.
  5. Black currant and tomato juice products, fresh or processed.
  6. Tomato sauces, unless first simmered at least 3 hours with an open lid.
  7. Smoked food of any kind, particularly fish and meat.
  8. Sugar-free chewing gum.
  9. Slivovitz: You can consume one alcoholic drink a day on this diet -- no more! [no fruit brandies]
  10. Overly ripe or near rotting fruits or vegetables.

Selection from Article 2, Fitness Life, December 2007, and well discussed in the DVD video:

"Identical Symptoms of MS, Methanol Poisoning and Aspartame Toxicity

The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (44, 83, 85, 169), chronic and acute methanol poisoning (13, 144, 189), and Aspartame toxicity (54, 58, 93, 181), are in all ways identical.

There is nothing that happens to the human body from the toxic effect of methanol that has not been expressed during the course of MS... nothing (143, 144).

This generalization extends even to the remarkable opthomological conditions common to both: transitory optic neuritis and retrolaminar demyelinating optic neuropathy with scotoma of the central visual field (which occasionally manifests as unilateral temporary blindness (85, 138, 163).

In fact, these opthomological symptoms have been thought of for years in their respective literatures to be "tell tale" indications for the differential diagnosis for each of these maladies independently (85, 138, 148, 163, 169).

The common symptoms of
headache (13, 83, 181, 189)
nervousness (13, 83, 181)
depression (58, 83, 189, 181)
memory loss (18, 147, 85, 169, 181)
tingling sensations (13, 85, 168, 138, 169)
pain in the extremities (13, 85, 169)
optic neuritis (85, 138, 148, 163, 169)
bright lights in the visual field (139, 83)
seizures (21, 83, 160)
inability to urinate or to keep from urinating (139, 146, 167)
are all shared by each of these conditions and shared yet again by complaints from aspartame poisoning(54, 58, 93, 181).

I take these strikingly similar symptom patterns as evidence that these disorders act on identical components of the central nervous system and in the same way.

The "Miracle" that MS shares with Methanol poisoning

In the early stages of MS, or when a non-lethal dose of methanol has been administered, complete recovery is a possibility.

The only two afflictions for which such dramatic "remissions" are reported from identical neuromuscular and opthomological damage, even "blindness" is relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (85) and methyl alcohol poisoning (138, 163).

The pathology of the two maladies is in may ways identical, particularly when it comes to destruction of the myelin sheath with no harm to the axon itself (18, 148, 176).

Sex Ratios for MS and Aspartame Reactions

Women bear the brunt of multiple sclerosis (91a-c) and lupus (SLE)(73) with fully three-fold representations in infliction numbers over men for both diseases.

This is exactly the proportion represented by adverse reactors to Aspartame reported by the US Center for Disease Control in their study of 1984 (58).

The Center found three women to every man whose aspartame consumption complaints were serious enough to warrant investigation (93).

Although the female/male ratio for those stricken with MS has always been high, recent estimates place it at over 3 to 1 (91, 91a, 91c).

What might account for the difference across sexes in incidence?

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (94) reports biopsies of the gastric lining of men and women.

A result was that the concentration of ADH in the gastric lining of men was much higher than for woman.

Men have the advantage of removing methanol from the bloodstream four times faster on an equal-body-size basis than women.

Thus, for men, methanol is more likely to be removed from the blood before it reaches the brain.

The brain is spared but the methanol removed would still be metabolized to formaldehyde in the gut where it would reap its havoc on a more forgiving organ.

This may help explain why men have more gastrointestinal complaints from both methanol and Aspartame consumption (93, 99).

On the other hand, women's complaints from both more frequently involve serious neurological complications."...


Rich Murray, MA
Boston University Graduate School 1967 psychology
BS MIT 1964, history and physics
1943 Otowi Road
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505
505-819-7388 New primary archive
Group with 118 members, 1,620 posts in a public archive
Group with 1226 members, 24,284 posts in a public archive

Participant, Santa Fe Complex